Showing posts with label public keyword. Show all posts
Showing posts with label public keyword. Show all posts


C++ : Encapsulation


  • Data Hiding is also known as Encapsulation.
  • Encapsulation is the process of combining data and function into a single unit called class.
  • Data Hiding is the mechanism where the details of the class are hidden from the user.
  • The user can perform only a restricted set of operations in the hidden member of the class.
  • Encapsulation is a powerful feature that leads to information hiding,abstract data type and friend function.
  • They encapsulate all the essential properties of the object that are to be created.
  • Using the method of encapsulation the programmer cannot directly access the class.

Access Specifier:

There are three types of access specifier.They are

  • Private :Within the block.
  • Public:Whole over the class.
  • Protected:Act as a public and then act as a private.

Within a class members can be declared as either public protected or private in order to explicitly enforce encapsulation.
The elements placed after the public keyword is accessible to all the user of the class.
The elements placed after the protected keyword is accessible only to the methods of the class.
The elements placed after the private keyword are accessible only to the methods of the class.
The data is hidden inside the class by declaring it as private inside the class. Thus private data cannot be directly accessed by the object.

For example,
In order to make the design and maintenance of a car reasonable the complex of equipment is divided into modules with particular interfaces hiding design decisions. 

General Form:

class class name
datatype data;
Member functions;

classname objectname1,objectname2……………;


class Square
int Num;

void Get()    {
    cout<<"Enter Number:";
void Display()    {
    cout<<"Square Is:"<<Num*Num;

void main()
Square Obj;

Features and Advantages of Data Encapsulation:

The advantage of data encapsulation comes when the implementation of the class changes but the interface remains the same.
It is used to reduce the human errors. The data and function are bundled inside the class that take total control of maintenance and thus human errors are reduced.
Makes maintenance of application easier.
Improves the understand-ability of the application.
Enhanced Security.
Note:Thus the concept of encapsulation shows that a non member function cannot access an object’s private or protected data.

In details we can say that Encapsulation is an Object Oriented Programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data, and that keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. Data encapsulation led to the important OOP concept of data hiding.
Data encapsulation is a mechanism of bundling the data, and the functions that use them and data abstraction is a mechanism of exposing only the interfaces and hiding the implementation details from the user.
C++ supports the properties of encapsulation and data hiding through the creation of user-defined types, called classes. We already have studied that a class can contain private, protected and public members. By default, all items defined in a class are private. For example:
class Box
      double getVolume(void)
         return length * breadth * height;
      double length;      // Length of a box
      double breadth;     // Breadth of a box
      double height;      // Height of a box
The variables length, breadth, and height are private. This means that they can be accessed only by other members of the Box class, and not by any other part of your program. This is one way encapsulation is achieved.
To make parts of a class public (i.e., accessible to other parts of your program), you must declare them after the public keyword. All variables or functions defined after the public specifier are accessible by all other functions in your program.
Making one class a friend of another exposes the implementation details and reduces encapsulation. The ideal is to keep as many of the details of each class hidden from all other classes as possible.

Data Encapsulation Example:

Any C++ program where you implement a class with public and private members is an example of data encapsulation and data abstraction. Consider the following example:
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Adder{
      // constructor
      Adder(int i = 0)
        total = i;
      // interface to outside world
      void addNum(int number)
          total += number;
      // interface to outside world
      int getTotal()
          return total;
      // hidden data from outside world
      int total;
int main( )
   Adder a;

   cout << "Total " << a.getTotal() <<endl;
   return 0;
When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces following result:
Total 60
Above class adds numbers together, and returns the sum. The public members addNum and getTotal are the interfaces to the outside world and a user needs to know them to use the class. The private member total is something that is hidden from the outside world, but is needed for the class to operate properly.